The Central Institute for Economic Management (CIEM) was initially called the Institute for Economic Management of the Party Central Committee established under Decision No. 209 NQ-NS/TW dated 14/07/1977 of the Politburo with its mandate to assist the Party Central Committee and the Government with economic management research in accordance to Resolution of the Fourth National Party Congress

On 17/04/1978, the Standing Committee of the National Assembly issued Decision No. 215-NQ/QHK6, approving the establishment of the Institute for Economic Management, a Ministerial-level agency under the Council of Government; on this basis, the Council of Government issued Decree No. 111 – CP dated 18/05/1978 on promulgating the tasks, powers and organizational structure of the Institute for Economic Management.

In 1992, the Government issued Decree No. 07-CP dated 27/10/1992, assigning the State Planning Committee (now the Ministry of Planning and Investment) to be in charge of the Central Institute for Economic Management