Valmaine Toki is a legal academic at Te Piringa, Faculty of Law, University of Waikato and teaches in the areas of Contemporary Treaty and Māori Issues, Jurisprudence and Legal Method. As a He Ture Pumau scholar Valmaine previously worked for Te Ohu Kai Moana Trustee Ltd on Māori fisheries, aquaculture and asset allocation. She is a Vice Chair on the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues. Her research interests lie within the areas of Human and Indigenous Rights and resource management. Recently she has undertaken research into ‘therapeutic jurisprudence’ as a vehicle to implement indigenous legal systems/tikanga Māori to reduce the disproportionate number of Māori criminal offenders. This envisages a specialist indigenous court that embraces Māori customs, ethics, values, and norms.